use type, individual metering of loads and feeders of a certain size, and to be able to monitor all energy streams by
building or production unit. Companies should plan for rolling out metering to existing equipment and set standards for
new plant purchases.
Modern meters facilitate remote automatic data collection.
Often existing site networks or wireless technology can be
used to concentrate data and share it with users via dedicated PCs or web-based tools. This simplifies the process of
gathering energy consumption data as well as richer information useful for site operations such as electrical maximum
demand and power quality – both of which can have their
impact on energy costs.
Further data collection should be managed through structured audits of the existing facilities, with clearly defined
scope and deliverables. Audit outcomes should focus on an
energy action plan with detailed energy saving opportunities
backed by implementation cost and savings potential.
Audit approaches can range from the entry level of one
or two days for a walk through of the key energy consuming
areas to a comprehensive audit with detailed recommendations and estimates for energy saving opportunities. It is
also possible to guarantee savings through a performance
contract which is agreement with an energy efficiency expert
that identifies and evaluates saving opportunities within
a facility and recommends a number of energy equipment
retrofits. The savings generated on utility bills from the
newly installed, more efficient equipment ultimately reverts
towards paying for the cost of the capital equipment over a
specified number of years –minimizing the financial risk to
the organization. This necessitates a higher level of monitoring before and after interventions and a good understanding
of the variables affecting energy performance as well as a
higher level of involvement from both parties with a more
PASSIVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY: FIX THE BASICS
AND REDUCE THE LOSSES
Passive energy efficiency measures to reduce losses from
energy consuming devices are often considered first. Indeed,
a variety of technologies exist to help improve energy efficiency, such as low energy lighting, low loss transformers,
and high efficiency motors.
Motors typically consume 60 to 70% of the electrical en-
ergy in a pharmaceutical plant, much of which is attributed
to HVAC systems. New motor efficiency standards have at-
tempted to unify the various approaches around the world
and now provide benchmarks used by governments to legis-
late on minimum efficiency performance standards. However,
these generally only apply to new motor purchases. In some
cases legislation is phased in over many years and there are
generous extensions to allow for depletion of existing stocks.
Companies should create a motor management policy to im-
mark against current high efficiency standards.
* Identify motor efficiency upgrade opportunities.
* Determine a repair/replace policy (note that rewound mo-
tors typically lose 1 to 1.5% efficiency each time).
Don’t rely on long lead in legislation – update specifica-
tions for high efficiency motors and include those for OEM
purchased equipment. A motor running 24/7 may well con-
sume the equivalent of its capital cost in energy, within
Any energy efficiency program must also address the human aspects – a person’s activities and actions determine
the consumption of energy. Employees need to be engaged
and their cooperation and expertise harnessed.
All of these measures are important and make a contribu-
tion to energy savings. However, without an active approach
to energy efficiency, these passive measures will not be fully
* A high efficiency motor without appropriate control can
still waste a great amount of energy, although somewhat
less than a standard motor.
* Uncontrolled low-voltage lighting will still consume unnecessary energy, only a little more slowly than conventional
* Employee energy saving campaigns tend to work for a lim-
ACTIVE ENERGY MANAGEMENT: AUTOMATION
ited time. However, without automation and monitoring to
embed better practices, things ultimately revert back to
business as usual
To have an effective energy management program it is
essential to embed active energy efficiency into the plant.
Automated control and regulation of these systems and their
energy use is the only way to proceed beyond the basic en-
AND REGULATION – MANAGING ENERGY USE
In pharmaceutical manufacturing, maintaining the proper
PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESSING | MARCH 2014 51 ■